Monthly Archives: June 2016

Universal Joints In Automobile

A universal joint is a joint or coupling in a rigid rod that allows the rod to ‘bend’ in any direction, and is commonly used in shafts that transmit rotary motion. It consists of a pair of hinges located close together, oriented at 90° to each other, connected by a cross shaft.
Universal joints are capable of transmitting torque and rotational motion from one shaft to another when their axes are inclined to each other by some angle, which may constantly vary under working conditions. Universal joints are incorporated in the of vehicle’s transmission system to perform three basic applications :


(a) Propeller shaft end joints between longitudinally front mounted gearbox and rear final drive axle.

(b) Rear axle drive shaft end joints between the sprung final drive and the unsprung rear wheel stub axle.

(c) Front axle drive shaft end joints between the sprung front mounted final drive and the unsprung front wheel steered stub axle.

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Universal joints have movement only in the vertical plane when they are used for lon­gitudinally mounted propeller shafts and transverse rear mounted drive shafts. When these joints have been used for front outer drive shaft they have to move in both the vertical and horizontal plane to accommodate both vertical suspension deflection and the swivel pin angular movement to steer the front road wheels. The compounding of angular working movement of the outer drive shaft steering joint in two planes imposes large and varying working angles even when the torque is being transmitted to the stub axle. Due to the severe working conditions, special universal joints known as constant velocity joints are employed.


How To Write A Fabulous Reference Letter

Kavita was working with ABC Corporation for 3 years. He was doing a good work and his seniors were happy with his work. With new career goals, he decided to work for another company to further enhance his work skills and seek a career jump. He was successful in cracking the job interview and the new company requested for a reference before employing him. Here comes the importance of job recommendation letter.
At some point in our career, we need a letter of recommendation. Either you need to write one as a manager/senior or you require showing to your prospective employer. Depending upon the situation, a job recommendation letter could be –
1) Written as a character and personal reference letter
2) Employment references/verification letter
3) Asking for promotion
When do you need a job recommendation letter?

You are changing your job after years of working in one single organization. You want to move ahead and explore new career options. Your work role and responsibilities in your last organization were eventful and new skills added in your workplace competencies. To convince and assure the new employer of your last workplace behavior and how good you were in previous organization, you may request to write a letter of reference.

Remember to get your letter of recommendation from your previous employer, you have to part ways amicably and follow the resignation process.

What to include in a job recommendation letter?

You may request the ex employer to add the following points in the reference letter. When writing a letter, it should explain connection to the person. Include details why the recommended person is suitable for the job role.

Position of employment you are best-suited for

Position of employment in your last organization

Achievements and work done in the last organization

Workplace soft skills

Behavior with co-workers and seniors
Important: The old-fashioned way of writing a letter is now replaced by emails.
Recommendation Letter Format:

Sample 1
I would like to recommend [name] as a candidate for a position in your organization. In her position, was [name] employed in our office from 2000-2008.

[name] did an excellent job in this role and was an asset to our organization during the 8 years with the office.

He/she has excellent written and verbal skills, organized, manages time well and can work independently. He/she is able to follow through to ensure that the job gets done.

He/she was always willing to offer her assistance and had excellent rapport with colleagues, clients and other professional organizations.

He/she would be an asset to any employer and I recommend her any endeavor she chooses to pursue.
Sample 2– This letter is suitable for interns/ students managing studies and full-time job roles

With great pleasure, I’m writing this letter of reference for Mr. Smith. I have had the pleasure of viewing Mr. Smith development over the past three years. I can state with confidence that he is a motivated and responsible individual with a high degree of integrity. As such, I expect he will a positive addition to your organization.

As the chariman of XYZ organization, I feel I know Mr. Smith very well. He started working as an executive while still pursuing a college degree. In this role, he had a considerable amount of responsibilities and he handled effortlessly. He showed skills to communicate with both customers and sales staff. Due to his dedication and hard work, the company saw profits and increase in sales.

He informed me about his wish to work in your organization and utilize his master’s degree in international business management. I feel upon observation that he has an interest to excel in this field and in your organization he can perform and reach new heights.

I hope you give his job application a favorable consideration. If you need further information, please do not hesitate to call me.



Chairman, XYZ Organization
Sample 3
Shipra Sinha was employed as a Manager, Administration from 2010 -2015. During her tenure at Info Edge India, Shipra was responsible for office support including word processing, scheduling appointments and creating brochures, circulars, newsletters, and other office literature.
Shipra fulfilled her duties with little supervision. Her position required communicating with various stakeholders and customers and she managed it effortlessly. Her success was dependent on strong communication and interpersonal skills.
I’m happy to act as reference for Shipra Sinha and vouch for her customer service skills, work ethics, and professionalism. Feel free to contact me if your organization requires further information about her.